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人类大脑皮层发育过程中的关键环节

人类的大脑皮层与其他哺乳动物相比,既结构上大而厚且又功能复杂,这些特点决定了我们的认知和创造能力更强大。那怎么造成人类所产生的神经细胞数量大大增加呢?又是怎样的发育过程呢?美国加利福尼亚大学旧金山分校的David V. Hansen、 Jan H. Lui、Philip R. L. Parker和Arnold R. Kriegstein共同解释了人脑发育过程中的一个关键环节-OSVZ区域的产生。

 

哺乳动物脑中的“脑室下区”(subventricular zone ,SVZ)产生神经先祖细胞,它们迁移到脑中靠上的各层中。这个区域在人脑发育过程中范围大大增加,并产生一个“外脑室下区” (outer subventricular zone ,OSVZ)区域,推测该区域也许对整个皮层大小和复杂程度有贡献。OSVZ区域由大量放射状神经胶质样细胞和神经祖细胞构成,其中前者有类似神经上皮细胞一样长长的基突。对发育中的人体组织进行的活细胞成像表明,OSVZ具有与SVZ同样的特点,有大量神经先祖细胞的不对称增殖及分化,而且通过诱导“Notch”信号转导可以引起神经元的分化。这样一个非脑室先祖细胞群的形成,也许是向人类大脑皮层发育过程中走向复杂化的一个重要演化步骤。

参考文献:Nature. 2010 Feb 14;464(7288):554-561. [Epub ahead of print]

Neurogenic radial glia in the outer subventricular zone of human neocortex.
Hansen DV, Lui JH, Parker PR, Kriegstein AR.

[1] Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, [2] Department of Neurology, [3] These authors contributed equally to this work.

Neurons in the developing rodent cortex are generated from radial glial cells that function as neural stem cells. These epithelial cells line the cerebral ventricles and generate intermediate progenitor cells that migrate into the subventricular zone (SVZ) and proliferate to increase neuronal number. The developing human SVZ has a massively expanded outer region (OSVZ) thought to contribute to cortical size and complexity. However, OSVZ progenitor cell types and their contribution to neurogenesis are not well understood. Here we show that large numbers of radial glia-like cells and intermediate progenitor cells populate the human OSVZ. We find that OSVZ radial glia-like cells have a long basal process but, surprisingly, are non-epithelial as they lack contact with the ventricular surface. Using real-time imaging and clonal analysis, we demonstrate that these cells can undergo proliferative divisions and self-renewing asymmetric divisions to generate neuronal progenitor cells that can proliferate further. We also show that inhibition of Notch signalling in OSVZ progenitor cells induces their neuronal differentiation. The establishment of non-ventricular radial glia-like cells may have been a critical evolutionary advance underlying increased cortical size and complexity in the human brain.

PMID: 20154730 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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    摘要
    美国加利福尼亚大学旧金山分校的David V. Hansen、 Jan H. Lui、Philip R. L. Parker和Arnold R. Kriegstein共同解释了人脑发育过程中的一个关键环节-OSVZ区域的产生。
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    大脑皮层,发育
     
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